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Priprema zemljišta za setvu pšenice

Veoma je važno i korisno izvoditi sve poslove na vreme i u roku. .Priprema zemljišta za setvu pšenice se obavlja u jesen posle skidanja preduseva. Ona se odvija u dve faze: osnovnu i predsetvenu. Osnovna obrada umnogome zavisi od tipa zemljišta, preduseva, dubine obrade zemljišta pod predusevom, stanja zemljišta i ekonomske opravdanosti. Najčešće se obavlja teškim tanjiračama, mada postoje i kombinovana oruđa koja istovremeno obavljaju i finalnu pripremu za setvu. Predsetvenom pripremom obezbeđuje se rastresit površinski sloj zemljišta koji prekriva seme i smanjuje otpor klici pri nicanju, i umereno zbijeni sloj na koji se seme polaže, koji obezbeđuje dobar kontakt između semena i zemljišnih čestica i omogućava duže zadržavanje vlage.

Najčešći predusevi

Kod nas se najčešće se kao predusev za pšenicu koristi suncokret. Ako je tako, odmah posle žetve bi trebalo da se pristupi strnjenju žetvenih ostataka. 

Kao odlični predusevi su se pokazali i soja, pasulj i grašak jer se rano skidaju, ostavljaju dosta azota i čisto zemljište. 

U poslednje vreme se sve češće kukuruz javlja kao predusev. Kada je on u pitanju, raniji hibridi su bolji od kasnih. Ukoliko kukuruz dugo ostane na njivi kratak period ostaje za pripremu zemljišta. Posle kukuruza ima dosta žetvenih ostataka koje treba usitniti, zaorati i nekada je teško ispoštovati taj optimalni rok setve koji nam je izuzetno bitan.

Đubrenje zemljišta

Đubrenje zemljišta je izuzetno važna agrotehnička mera za dobijanje visokih prinosa. Od toga kako i kojim đubrivima đubrimo njivu zavisi krajnji rezultat proizvodnih procesa. Postavlja se pitanje koja količina đubriva treba da se unese u zemljište da bi prinosi bili visoki? Odgovor na ovo pitanje nije jednostavan, količina đubriva bi trebalo da zavisi od sadržaja hraniva u zemljištu, prirodne plodnosti zemljišta, potrebe određene kulture za hranivima, sistema biljne prozvodnje i vremenskih uslova

Šta je predsetvena obrada zemljišta?

Pod predsetvenom obradom zemljišta se podrazumeva da se stvori sitni, rastresiti površinski sloj, koji omogućava kvalitetnu setvu, osigurava ujednačeno i brzo nicanje i ostvaruje uslove za pravilno razviće biljaka  Iako je ova mera izuzetno važna, poklanja joj se veoma malo pažnje. Kada se ne izvede dobro predstavlja jedan od uzroka smanjenog prinosa.

Oruđa za predsetvenu obradu zemljišta

Predsetvena obrada zemljišta se vrši različitim oruđima. tanjiračama, drljačama, rotofrezom, setvospremačem. U zavisnosti od toga da li je oranje izvršeno u optimalnom vremenu ili ranije, prvo će se izvršiti drljanje, odnosno kultiviranje. Ukoliko je u vreme predsetvene obrade zemljišta zemljište suvo, pored tanjirače i drljače bi trebalo da se koriste i rebrasti valjci za razbijanje grudvi. Da bi se sleglo zemljište, potrebno je izvršiti valjanje. Ukoliko postoji mogućnost, u cilju brzog i ujednačenog nicanja. kao i obezbeđenja vlagom površinskog sloja, treba obaviti valjanje pre, ali i posle setve. 

Nekvalitetno izvedena predsetvena priprema predstavlja jedan od uzroka smanjenih prinosa. Zbog slabe predsetvene pripreme troši se veca količina semena kako bi se obezbedio dovoljan broj biljaka po jedinici površine. Takode, na parceli ostaju neravnine gde može da se zadržava voda, te kasnije na tim mestima biljke neujednačeno niču pa je i čitav usev neujednačen.  Tek kada se predsetvena priprema izvrši kako treba i zemljište bude ravno, može da se pristupi setvi.

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